Northwest International University and
New emerging technologies
Northwest International University is proud to act as a scientific, educational and research entity in the field of publishing new global achievements and up to date articles about the world emerging technologies. I am very thankful to Mr. Scott Sleecks and APS for making it possible for us to be aware of recent efforts regarding to Machine Learing ans artificial intelligence.I also appreciate the scientists who are working in the universities of Carenegie Mellon ,Princeton , Colorado Bulder ,Notre Dam and others in this cocern .Undoubtedly, this kind of research on machine Learning and artificial intelligence will make this phenomenon play a major role in human life in the future, and we should prepare our lives to adapt from now on, otherwise there is also a possibility that artificial intelligence will destroy civilization and put humanity at risk.
How Machine Learning is Transforming Psychological Science
By : Scott Sleek
January 03 , 2023
Today, we can train computer programs to give us directions, suggest streaming movies we might enjoy, and even vacuum our living rooms. But machine learning is emerging as far more than a source of convenience; it’s helping scientists better understand our minds.
The growing use of big data and artificial intelligence (AI) is generating trailblazing discoveries and theories about human cognition, behavior, personality, and mental health. This advanced technology stands to transcend the limits of scientists’ observational capabilities.
“What’s going to happen over the next decade, just as a consequence of having more data, is that machine-learning systems are going to be able to pull out more insights than the humans who were thinking about those data may be able to [generate],” Tom Griffiths, a professor of psychology and computer science at Princeton University, said in an interview.
Though some psychological scientists caution that machine learning is too embryonic to yield indubitable conclusions, many see the technology as a revolutionary path toward capturing human psychology in all its complexity.
“AI can provide innovative ideas that may have taken considerable time for humans, in part because it is less constrained by limits on available knowledge and biases,” psychological scientist Laura K. Bartlett and her colleagues at the London School of Economics and Political Science wrote in an article published in Perspectives on Psychological Science (Bartlett, et al., 2022).
In the past 5 years alone, researchers have demonstrated the use of machine learning to examine consciousness, decision-making, perception, and behavior.
From novel data sources, novel applications
Machine-learning research is evolving rapidly thanks to mammoth increases in computing power and 21st-century data sources, including social media, smartphone texts, and crowd-sourced research tools such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk).
“Machine learning’s utility is born out of necessity with these novel data types,” Ross Jacobucci, a University of Notre Dame quantitative psychologist, said in an interview. “To analyze most of the data collected from novel sources, you can’t use traditional statistical models.”
The emergence of massive data sets and advanced technology has spawned university labs focusing specifically on the use of machine learning. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), for instance, launched BrainHub, an interdisciplinary initiative aimed at developing new technologies to measure and analyze the brain. The University of Colorado Boulder’s Institute of Cognitive Science houses experts in psychology, computer science, neuroscience, linguistics, and other disciplines and aims to modernize the study of human cognition. Stanford University’s Computational Psychology and Well-Being Lab uses social-media data and machine learning to examine health and psychological issues.
Griffiths, a Guggenheim Fellow, directs Princeton’s Computational Cognitive Science Lab, which builds mathematical models to understand the roots of human cognition. He and collaborators at the University of Chicago and the Stevens Institute of Technology recently taught an AI algorithm to model people’s first impressions of others.
The research team asked thousands of people, recruited on MTurk, to give their first impressions of computer-generated photos of faces. Over nearly 11,000 sessions, the participants ranked each pictured individual on qualities such as intelligence, attractiveness, trustworthiness, religiosity, and political orientation. The researchers used the mass of responses to train an artificial neural network—a
form of AI that processes information much like the human brain—to make similar snap judgments of photographed faces.
They learned the algorithm’s judgments mirrored many of the participants’ impressions. Smiling faces were seen as more trustworthy, for example. People wearing glasses were judged to be more intelligent (Peterson et al., 2022).
The results suggest that AI can help predict how others, including potential employers or romantic partners, will perceive us on the basis of our facial features and expressions.
“The algorithm doesn’t provide targeted feedback or explain why a given image evokes a particular judgment,” Jordan W. Suchow, a cognitive psychologist at the Stevens Institute, said in a press release. “But even so it can help us to understand how we’re seen—we could rank a series of photos according to which one makes you look most trustworthy, for instance, allowing you to make choices about how you present yourself.”
Griffiths and his collaborators have also created algorithms to generate new theories on risky decision-making and planning (Peterson, et al., 2021; Callaway, et al., 2022). Others have employed machine learning in a variety of behavioral, personality, cognitive, and clinical studies.
Management researchers such as computational psychologist Sandra C. Matz at Columbia University have applied a machine-learning technique to study the link between spending and personality traits. In a study reported in Psychological Science, Matz and colleagues collected data from nearly 2,200 consenting users of a money-management app, resulting in two million spending records from credit cards and bank transactions. The account holders also completed a personality survey that measured materialism, self-control, and the “Big Five” personality traits of openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
The researchers organized the spending data into broad categories—including supermarkets, furniture stores, insurance policies, online stores, and coffee shops. They then used random forest modeling, a machine-learning technique that combines multiple algorithms, to analyze whether participants’ relative spending across categories signaled specific personality types.
The scientists marked several ties between spending habits and certain traits, especially the narrow qualities of materialism and self-control. Those scoring high on materialism, for example, spent more on jewelry and less on charitable donations (Gladstone et al., 2019).
Machine-learning techniques have also enabled innovative ways to study emotions across cultures. Daniel Oberfeld-Twistel, a psychological scientist at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, created an algorithm that he and an international research team used to explore how people from different parts of the world associate colors with emotions (e.g., red with anger). They combined questionnaire responses from 4,598 individuals in 30 countries with Oberfeld-Twistel’s creation to show the large number of color/emotion associations that are similar across the globe and those that vary from country to country (Jonauskaite et al., 2020).
Machine learning is also yielding discoveries that could provide insights into human learning and improve education. CMU researchers Robert Mason and Marcel Just, for example, used machine learning to identify potential improvements in scientific instruction. They recruited 9 advanced physics and engineering students and had them undergo brain scans while they studied 30 concepts including gravity, entropy, and velocity. Using a neural decoding technique developed at CMU, the researchers found that each concept triggered its own brain activation pattern. The results, the authors said, reveal how the brain learns and discovers abstract scientific concepts (Mason & Just, 2016).
Cognitive psychologist Sidney K. D’Mello and his colleagues at the University of Colorado Boulder have used a machine-learning algorithm to examine eye-tracking data involving students; they identified eye patterns associated with reading comprehension and mind wandering (D’Mello et al., 2020; Hutt et al., 2017). Educational psychologists Michael Sailer and Frank Fischer of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich have employed artificial neural networks to provide feedback that helped teachers better identify students with dyslexia and other learning difficulties (Sailer et al., 2022).